Suffer physically, not mentally

How can learning Buddhism or meditation relieve physical discomfort and painful sensations from illness and ageing?

From the Sallathena Sutta (SN 36.6) comes a similar enquiry:

The uninstructed ordinary person feels
      pleasant feeling,
      painful feeling,
      and neutral feeling.

But the instructed noble disciple, too, feels
      pleasant feeling,
      painful feeling,
      and neutral feeling.

What then
      is the distinction,
      the disparity,
      the difference
between the instructed noble disciple
      and the uninstructed ordinary person?

When the uninstructed ordinary person is touched by a painful feeling,
      he sorrows,
      grieves,
      laments,
      beats his breast,
      becomes confused.
So he feels two feelings:
      the bodily and the mental.

It is just as if
      they were to wound a person with a dart,
            and then they were to wound him with a second dart.

As such, that person would feel the sensation of two darts.

If he feels a pleasant feeling,
      he feels that it is yoked to him.
If he feels a painful feeling,
      he feels that it is yoked to him.
If he feels a neutral feeling,
      he feels that it is yoked to him.
…an uninstructed ordinary person
      who is yoked
            to birth,
            death,
            sorrow,
            lamentation,
            physical pain,
            mental pain
            and despair
– he is one who is yoked to suffering…

And so the Buddha exhorts us:

But when the instructed noble disciple is touched by a pain feeling,
      he does not sorrow,
      or grieve,
      or beat his breast,
      or become confused.
So he feels only one feeling:
      the bodily, not the mental.

It is just as if
      they were to wound a person with a dart,
            but they were not to wound him with a second dart.

As such, that person would feel the sensation of only one dart.

The wise one,
      deeply learned,
            feels not a feeling in his mind
                  that is pleasurable or painful

This is the greatest difference
      between the wise and uninstructed ordinary person.

For the deeply wise who has mastered the Teachings,
      who truly sees this world and the next.
Desirable things do not agitate his mind
      nor does the undesirable bring him aversion.

For him there is neither attraction nor repulsion,
they have been dispersed,
      come to an end,
And having known that
      dustless sorrowless state,
He rightly knows
      that he has crossed over existence.

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